DNA sequencing technologies have existed since the early 1970s. The automated Sanger sequencing developed by and named after Frederick Sanger is considered as a “first-generation” technology. Sanger shared 1980 chemistry Nobel prize with Walter Gilbert due to their contributions concerning the determination of base sequences in nucleic acids. The finished-grade Human Genome Project was dominantly supported by Sanger sequencing. However, this technology was prohibitively expensive, cumbersome and time consuming, showing a great demand for high-throughput sequencing. Newer sequencing methods emerged with the ability to produce massive data cheaply are referred to as next-generation sequencing (NGS). NGS technology’s methods can be broadly grouped into template preparation, cluster generation, sequencing and imaging, and data analysis. Different NGS platforms providing their own protocols for customers enrich the market choices. In addition, the arrival of NGS enhances the understanding of how genome sequence variants underlie disease and cancer, and further gives instructions in clinical practice (e.g. Down syndrome), which expands the range and scope of DNA sequencing applications. A promising prospect is that the evolvement of NGS could make DNA sequencer a portable sensor which can easily be accessed by everyone for daily nucleic acids monitoring regarding health.
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