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Synthesis and Application of Functional Nanoparticles for Precision Drug Delivery

Portrait of Shivani Nagode, speaker
Shivani Nagode
Graduate Student, Department of Chemistry
University of Georgia
iSTEM Building 2, Room 1218
Organic Seminar

Nanoparticles (NPs) are particles of approximately 1-100 nm in size and have properties not found in bulk samples of the same material. Different materials, such as polymers, metal oxides, silica, noble metals, and carbon, can be used to create nanoparticles, which can then carry a variety of bioactive substances for use in biomedical applications, such as proteins, nucleic acids, small molecules for chemotherapy, and diagnostics.

Owing to their distinct surface effects, nanomaterials exhibit a plethora of applications across various domains, including catalysis, medicine, and agriculture. These effects stem from their immense surface area, an elevated fraction of surface atoms, and fewer direct neighbors at the surface than bulk materials. Consequently, nanomaterials demonstrate altered chemical and physical properties, such as reduced binding energy per atom, leading to significant deviations in characteristics like melting temperature. Moreover, their larger surface areas and surface-to-volume ratios enhance reactivity and profoundly influence their structural properties.

Nanoparticles have the potential to overcome challenges that exist in current treatment for cancer treatment, such as complex bypassing of the blood-brain barrier, tumor heterogeneity, and side effects caused by non-specific and high dosages of anti-tumor drugs. The drugs can be encapsulated in nanoparticles (NPs) engineered to allow for targeted delivery of their payload to the brain or promote BBB penetration.

Moreover, nanoparticles have the capacity to modify several functional groups to interact with specific molecules, such as genes and antibodies, which makes them helpful in targeted drug delivery to different types of diseases.

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